1Gk mathetes, refers to a pupil or apprentice of a teacher or philosopher and comes from the verb manthano, when means to learn or attend a school.
2Gk makariois is equivalent to the Hebrew 'esher (Psa 1:1), meaning fortunate or blessed.
3The Greek term ouranos, like its Hebrew equivalent, shamayim, is in the plural.
4The pronouns are plural throughout this chapter.
5Hebrew term amen (nma), meaning "let it be so," often used in the Hebrew Bible, see Psa 106:48
6An Aramaic term of abuse meaning numbskull or blockhead.
7Gk sunedrion can refer to local synagogue councils or the national Sanhedrin of Israel (see Mat 10:17).
8Gk more meaning fool or without sense.
9Valley of Hinnom, ravine just south of Jerusalem, site of burning and decaying garbage.
10A small Roman copper coin worth only two lepton (the "widows mite" of Mk 12:42). It was worth about 1/40 of a denarius, the common day wage for a laborer.
11 Gk skandalizo carries more the idea of a trap or snare than the notion of stumbling.
12Gk aggareuo, to force into service, see Mat 27:32; a Roman military occupation privilege.
13Greek teleioi meaning complete in the sense of mature and full-grown. The precise term is used in 1 Cor 14:20, Phil 3:15; Jas 1:4.